For years, people with a family history of Alzheimer’s disease have shied away from genetic testing, which could reveal that they carry the ApoE4 protein – a genetic risk factor associated with a 10-fold higher chance of developing the incurable neurodegenerative condition.
However, new research has highlighted a potential pathway for early intervention methods that could help those at a high risk for Alzheimer’s, making genetic screening for the disease as important as cholesterol tests are to preventing heart disease.
Researchers from The Buck Institute for Research on Aging, an independent research association based in Novato, Calif., have long been interested in discovering why ApoE4 is associated with such a high risk for Alzheimer’s disease.
“Why is this the dominant risk factor?” study author Dr. Dale Bredesen, founding CEO of the Buck Institute, told FoxNews.com. “Though people have known this for 20 years, it’s never been clear what it is that ApoE4 does to confer such risk.”
Prior research had focused on the discovery that ApoE4 appears to affect the clearance of amyloid-beta (A-beta), a plaque that builds up in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. However, Bredesen and his colleagues weren’t convinced that this finding told the whole story of why ApoE4 causes Alzheimer’s.
“Treating that hasn’t worked very well,” Bredesen said. “There’s an emerging feeling, which we believe, that this is more than just about A-beta.”
In a study published in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Bredesen and his colleagues analyzed ApoE4 cell cultures and discovered that ApoE4 was also associated with a dramatic reduction in SirT1 – a protein associated with anti-inflammation, anti-aging and longevity.
Bredesen said that as SirT1 decreases, it affects a certain protein crucial to the storage or loss of memories – the amyloid precursor protein (APP).
“You have a molecule called the APP, present in neurons and most cells in your body, and at all times this APP is getting cleaved,” Bredesen said. “It turns out there are two alternative patterns. So it is a little bit like how the government can go on shutdown or active. APP can go in the direction of memory or forgetting.”
In Alzheimer’s, Bredesen says people are on the ‘wrong side’ of this process – causing them to forget rather than retain memories.
However, by maintaining SirT1 levels, researchers believe they may be able to prevent these proteins from going awry. As a result of their discovery, Bredesen and his colleagues attempted to identify drugs that might be able to maintain levels of SirT1 in ApoE4 cell cultures. So far, they have successfully identified four drugs that seem to be effective – though they have yet to test their findings in humans.
“It gives us a leg up on saying, ‘Okay, we can begin to look at how to treat people with ApoE4 even when they’re young to make sure they never get Alzheimer’s, by affecting that link between ApoE4and Alzheimer’s,’” Bredesen said.
Furthermore, Bredesen and his colleagues also performed experiments in which they successfully reinserted SirT1 proteins back into cells already affected by ApoE4. By doing this, they were able to correct the abnormalities present in the cell and return it to a healthy state. This led Bredesen and his colleagues to speculate that treatment might be possible even for those already entering the early stages of Alzheimer’s.
“Most people today don’t want to know if they have ApoE4 because what can they do about it? This could change the landscape where we say everyone should know, just like with high cholesterol or high blood pressure, because you can do something about it,” Bredesen said.
Source : http://studychinaabroad.blogspot.in/
We all know that our health depends on what we eat. Our diet consists of different varieties of food items which are prepared and processed using different methods. During the preparation, storage and processing various changes occur to the naturally obtaining foods and some of these changes are damaging to our body cells. There are many food items which are considered as carcinogenic or which act as cancer causing agents and hence are to be avoided completely, if you want to enjoy a healthy life for a long time. Cancer is one of the most dreaded diseases of the modern age and diet plays an important role in causing cancer, apart from other factors such as genetics, exposure to chemicals and life style. To avoid cancer risk one should have basic knowledge about the food items that are harmful to our body. Most of the mouth watering foodstuffs available in the market are actually carcinogenic and hence a careful selection of food is necessary to protect ourselves and our family members from the risk of developing cancer. The top ten foods which are cancer causing are discussed here.
1. Processed Meat
There are different methods used for processing and preserving meat.
Smoking, salting, curing, pickling and chemical preservatives are the common methods used to preserve meat.
Processed meat items like bacon, hot dogs, sausages, packaged ham, pepperoni etc contain preservatives which make them appear as fresh.
Sodium nitrite and nitrate are the preservatives which are commonly used and these preservatives are found to be carcinogenic. These preservatives increase the chances of colon cancer and pancreatic cancer.
According to World Cancer Research Fund, the consumers should avoid eating processed meats to protect themselves from cancer.
2. Smoked And Burned Food Items
One of the major food items liked by people is the barbequed foods.
Smoking and barbecuing produces polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These chemicals increase the risk of cancer.
Studies have shown that eating burned or charred food items increases the chance of pancreatic cancer by about 60%.
Cooking the food items at high temperature causes the production of chemicals such as hetero cyclic amines which increases the chances of bowel or gullet cancer.
3. GMO Foods
The development of biotechnology has led to the increased production of genetically modified organisms for food purpose.
There are genetically modified vegetables, fish and poultry which are produced using chemicals which promote rapid growth of tumors in humans.
The genetically modified corn, tomatoes, potatoes, soybeans, canola, salmons poses threat to our health and hence should not be considered as cancer –free diet.
It is necessary to execute caution while purchasing food items. Select food items which are certified as non-GMO foods or organic foods which are produced using natural methods.
4. Sweetened Beverages
Sweetened and carbonated beverages like soda and other drinks sold commercially have high levels of refined sugar, added color and preservatives.
Scientific studies have proved that people who consume more than two servings of soda per week have 87% more chance of developing cancer of the digestive system.
The excess sugar present in these beverages provides the best medium for the cancer cells to grow as they provide all the nourishment for the tumor cells.
Chemicals present in soda such as caramel color and its derivative 4-methylimidazole (4-MI) have been considered as cancer causing.
5. Foods With Artificial Sweeteners
In the modern day, people are more aware about the need for maintaining healthy weight and in order to achieve this they depend on various diet foods and beverages which claim to be sugar free.
These foods and beverages which contain artificial sweeteners are more dangerous than the refined sugar.
Artificial sweeteners such as aspartame, Saccharain and Sucralose causes different health related problems including cancer.
6. Contaminated Produce
Most of the conventionally produced fruits and vegetables are contaminated by the use of pesticides.
The most contaminated food produce includes apples, grapes strawberries, oranges and potatoes. More than 90 % of the samples tested found to have pesticide residue.
Pesticides, as such, are toxic to humans and the chemicals in the pesticides increase the risk of cancer and lowered IQ in children.
You should buy fruits and vegetables which are organic or with pesticide-free label.
7. Fried Food Items
Fried items like chips and crisps contain chemical called Acrylamide which may cause cancer in humans.
French fries are cooked using oils containing trans-fats which are unhealthy for the heart.
Frying food items in re -heated oil releases toxic aldehydes which causes cancer and other neurodegenerative diseases.
Most of the fast food outlets use re-heated oil to fry potatoes and other items.
8. Microwave Popcorn
This is another food to be avoided to prevent cancer.
The lining of the microwave popcorn bag contain perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA) which belongs to a class of compounds that is linked to liver, testicular, and pancreatic cancers.
When the bag is microwaved, the chemicals vaporize and get absorbed by the popcorn, which will ultimately reach your body.
9. Canned Food Items
Most of the canned food items contain preservatives which may react with the can material.
The lining of the cans contains bisphenol-A which is proven to disrupt the normal hormonal activity of the body. This chemical is suspected to cause various problems including cancer.
10. Hydrogenated Oil
Hydrogenated oils are used for preparing the food which needs a longer shelf life.
Hydrogenated vegetable oils can change the structure of the cell membrane and make them more susceptible to diseases like cancer.
These trans-fats are still used by commercial food manufacturing units. Check the food labels to make sure that they are free of hydrogenated vegetable oil.
Do you want to prevent the risk of cancer? Are you looking for the foods to be avoided to lead a cancer free life? Try avoiding the above mentioned food items and select only organic and pest free food items. Avoid artificially colored and sweetened food items. This will help to avoid the fear of developing cancer and lead a relaxed and quality life for many years.
High blood pressure (HBP) is an easily preventable condition, but according to studies it plays a contributing role in more than 15% of deaths in the United States. It doesn’t have any visible symptoms, but can boost the risk of heart attack, stroke, cognitive decline and kidney failure. Thankfully, many most people can reduce their blood pressure the natural way. Your first step should be to get to a healthy weight, then try these strategies for added health benefits.
Just breathe. Slow breathing and meditation decrease stress hormones, which elevate renin, a kidney enzyme that raises blood pressure. Try 5 minutes in the morning and at night. Inhale deeply and expand your belly. Exhale and release all of your tension.
Remember the three Ps: pack in the potassium-rich produce. Loading up on potassium-rich fruits and vegetables is an important part lowering blood pressure. High potassium foods include sweet potatoes, tomatoes, potatoes, bananas, kidney beans, peas, cantaloupe, honeydew melon, prunes and raisins.
Cut the salt. Certain groups of people are more likely than others to have blood pressure that’s particularly sodium sensitive. There’s really no way to tell who is sodium sensitive and who isn’t, but if your HPB is a problem, it’s probably worth cutting out some salt. Experts recommend a diet with a max intake of 1,500 mg of sodium daily. Check the labels on your processed food and season foods with spices, herbs, lemon and salt-free seasoning blends.
Indulge yourself with dark chocolate. Dark chocolate varieties feature flavanols that make blood vessels more elastic. Have up to ½ ounce of dark chocolate with 70% cocoa daily.
Hug a cat. Entertain the idea of owning a pet or spending time with animals. Animals have a natural calming ability and studies have shown people who interact with pets have decreased blood pressure.
If you’re in pain, you may be able to harness your thoughts to help fight it. Skeptical? Studies suggest these pain relief tools can work.
Some techniques work for short term (or acute) pain, others for chronic pain. Either way, here are 12 methods to try.
Thinking about food—whether it’s warm, gooey chocolate brownies or a juicy roast beef meal—has been shown to help alleviate pain from menstrual cramps, migraines, and more.
A study conducted by University researchers found that fantasizing about a favorite food took away some of the pain associated with plunging a hand in icy water (a pretty painful process used in research).
Chocolate was the favorite food fantasy, preferred by 32% of participants in the study, followed by a roast dinner (31%), pasta (14%), pizza (14%) and fruit (4%).
Meditation may be one of the most powerful tonics for pain.
One 2011 study found that mindfulness meditation, which focuses on the breath, reduced pain intensity anywhere from 11% to 70% and pain unpleasantness from 20% to 93% in people who had a heat probe applied to their calves. And these study participants received only 80 minutes of training—other studies indicate that the more meditation hours the better when it comes to subverting pain.
You don’t have to be an expert meditator to reap the benefits of breathing. Practicing deep, diaphragmatic breathing (that’s breathing from the belly rather than shallow inhaling and exhaling from the chest) can be very helpful, says Singles, who is a distinguished psychologist in orthopedics and rehabilitation at the University of Wisconsin.
Focusing elsewhere means the pain isn’t hogging all your attention. This could simply be focusing on other parts of the body one at a time to induce progressive relaxation or another activity such as reading or watching a movie.
“Positive distractions are very helpful because the more you focus on pain guaranteed the worse you’re going to feel,” she says.
Saying a mantra
As little as 30 seconds of using a mantra can dampen unpleasant sensations, says Ellen Slawsby, PhD, director of Pain Services at the Benson Henry Institute at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Slawsby recommends a picking neutral or positive word or phrase rather than a sound.
imagine yourself on the beach or seeing your worries melt away. “The key is knowing what kinds of things are relaxing for you and envisioning that can be helpful,” says Slawsby. “Visualization can be great for arthritis patients to ease joint pain.”
You can imagine you’re in a warm bath with hands floating on the water. “Go through the whole imagery of going into the tub, your toes, ankles, knees, hip joint, lower back, middle back, shoulders,” she says. “Imagine the joints being warm and relaxed without the pressure of the regular planetary pull because you’re in the water. It gives you a buoyancy.”
Activating pressure points
Also known as self massage, applying pressure to areas that hurt, especially if it’s a tension headache or muscle pain, can be very beneficial, says Slawsby. It’s not clear why it works but it does.
Some people think that soothing messages from the massage counteract pain messages. Or it could be that the pressure reduces muscle tension, which is the culprit behind many different types of pain.
Try to switch to more positive thoughts and, in particular, avoid catastrophizing or imagining the worst.
Listening to music
Music can provide a welcome distraction, but also offers so much more. One study, which looked at rheumatoid arthritis patients and others suffering from chronic pain, found that listening to music for one hour over one week subdued pain, depression, and disability while increasing feelings of power.
Getting your thoughts and feelings on paper has been shown to relieve pain in many different populations. It can even enhance immune function. James W. Pennebaker, PhD, a leading researcher in the field, recommends writing before bed for a minimum of 15 minutes a day for at least three or four days.
Some possible topics: Something that you are thinking or worrying about too much, something you’ve been avoiding, or something you think is affecting your life in an unhealthy way.
Tapping into your creativity
Art therapy is gaining more credibility in medical settings, with some hospitals having dedicated therapy—often geared to children.
But the technique works in adults as well, with one study reporting that one hour of art therapy relieved physical and psychological symptoms in people living with HIV/AIDS.
The same group of researchers earlier found that playing with clay, glitter glue, yarn, beads, colored pencils, and an array of other art supplies relieved symptoms of pain and anxiety in cancer patients.
The adage “laughter is the best medicine” is no joke. A pilot study conducted at UCLA found that children and adolescents who watched humorous videos while their hands were soaking in frigid water were better able to tolerate the pain.
Another study attributed the effects of laughter on the release of endorphins, nature’s own analgesic.
If you’ve ever been unable to stop yourself from eating too many Oreo cookies it may not be your fault–a new college study says one of America’s favorite desserts is just as addictive as drugs in lab rats.
The study by students at Connecticut College found that when the rats ate Oreos they formed an equally strong association with the cookies as when other rats were injected with cocaine or morphine.
Additionally, researchers found eating the cookies activated even more neurons in the rats’ brain “pleasure centers” than the addictive drugs.
“Our research supports the theory that high-fat/ high-sugar foods stimulate the brain in the same way that drugs do,” Neuroscience Professor Joseph Schroeder said in a school press release. “It may explain why some people can’t resist these foods despite the fact that they know they are bad for them.”
The student behind the study says she wanted to explore how foods with high fat and sugar content contribute to obesity in low-income communities, and that the results are troubling.
“Even though we associate significant health hazards in taking drugs like cocaine and morphine, high-fat/ high-sugar foods may present even more of a danger because of their accessibility and affordability,” Jamie Honohun said.
On a lighter note, Honohun says they also got a surprise when watching the rats eat the Oreos.
“They would break it open and eat the middle first,” she said.
Source : Www.foxnews.com
you can lose fat fast and forever without waking up at 5am to run on an empty stomach, without exercising 6x/week without feeling hungry all the time or cutting your favorite foods forever and without expensive supplements.
You only need 3 things to lose fat: strength training, healthy nutrition & cardio. This post will give you a simple, efficient fat loss plan so you can get your body fat to dream numbers while still have a life & eat normally.
- Maintain Muscle. More strength is more muscle. Strength training builds muscle and prevents muscle loss so you don’t get skinny + fat.
- Burn Fat. Strength training prevents your metabolic rate from going down when dieting. This means more fat loss.
- Stick to Diet. Exercising positively influences your eating habits. You’ll stick to your diet better if you do strength training, losing more fat.
You’ll get best results doing a free weight routine of compound exercises like Squats & Dead lifts. Check Strong Lifts 5×5: it only takes 3x45mins/week.
2. Eat Healthy. Eat whole, unprocessed foods 90% of the time. Whole foods come as close as possible to their natural state: without added sugars, fats, sauces, … Buy raw foods and cook them yourself.
- Protein. Necessary to build & maintain muscle so you don’t get skinny + fat. Protein also satiates and has the highest thermic effect. Eat a whole protein source with each meal: beef, poultry, fish, dairy, whey, etc
- Veggies & Fruits. Fill your stomach, but usually low in calorie. Also high in fiber, water, vitamins & minerals. Eat veggies & fruits with each meal: spinach, broccoli, kale, asparagus, apples, oranges, etc.
- Healthy Fats. Fat doesn’t make you fat, bad nutrition & lack of exercise do. Healthy fats help fat loss: they satiate and slow down digestion. Eat healthy fats with each meal: fish oil, olive oil, mixed nuts.
- Water. Thirst can make you think you’re hungry. Avoid soda, alcohol and fruit juice. Drink 2 cups water with each meal and sip water during your workout. Green tea and water with squeezed lemon are OK too.
3. Eat Grains Post Workout Only. Grains like pasta or rice are very caloric dense: 100g blank pasta has over 350kcal while 100g broccoli has only 35kcal. Limit your intake of grains to post workout only to automatically reduce your caloric intake.
- Eat Less Starches. Eat proteins, veggies, fruits & healthy fats with each meal. Carbs from veggies & fruits are OK, this isn’t a zero carb fat loss diet. Don’t eat starchy carbs except post workout.
- No Workout = No Carbs. If you do strength training 3x per week, you can eat starchy carbs 3x per week post workout. Eat proteins, veggies, fruits & healthy fats with all other meals.
- Eat Whole Carbs Only. Whole carbs promote fat loss and take longer to digest. Avoid white carbs. Eat whole carbs only: brown rice, whole grain pasta, whole grain bread, oats, quinoa, …
4. Eat More. Frequent meals prevent hunger by keeping your blood sugar stable. Frequent smaller meals also decrease your stomach size over time, which means you’ll feel full sooner. Eat every 3 hours.
- Eat Breakfast. Build the habit of eating breakfast and try one of these breakfast recipes. Cook your food for the day while making breakfast.
- Eat Post Workout. The only meal where you can have carbs to replenish energy stores. Whole meal of protein & carbs or post workout shakes.
- Eat Every 3 hours. 6 smaller meals per day instead of 3 large ones. Breakfast, lunch, dinner, pre-bed and 2 snacks.
5. Add Cardio. Excess cardio burns muscle instead of fat, causing the skinny + fat look. Never do cardio only. Add cardio to speed up the fat loss you get from strength training & healthy nutrition.
- Moderate Intensity. 60-70% of your max heart rate. Breathing heavier than at rest, not gasping. Your goal is fat loss, not exhaustion.
- 3x45mins. Start with 15mins cardio post strength training 3x per week. Build up to 3x45mins per week by adding 1min each workout.
- Elliptical Trainer. Aka the cross trainer. There are many cardio machines you can choose from, but this one remains my favorite.
v Fat Loss Strategies. Now that you know what to do, you need to make it as easy as possible to apply the above fat loss tips. Follow the next 8 strategies, even if they sound counter-intuitive to you.
- Buy Healthy Foods Only. Enough for your whole week so you can stick to your fat loss plan. Don’t buy junk food – avoid temptations.
- Prepare Food in Advance. Cook your food for the day on waking up or when you get back from work. This takes about 1 hour.
- Make Double Portions. Speeds up preparation. Prepare 12 oz chickens and eat half at lunch and half at dinner.
- Eat the Same Every Day. Removing choice kills cravings and makes you see food for what it is: fuel for your body. Switch it up every 3 weeks.
- Eat at Fixed Times. Don’t wait until you’re hungry or feel like eating. Eat every 3 hours. Build consistency.
- Take Food with You. Take food to work, to school, to the movies, etc. This ensures you’re eating foods that will make you lose fat.
- Eat Before Going Out. Avoid ending up eating junk food because you’re hungry. Eat before you leave home and take food with you.
- Eat Junk Food 10% of The Time. You can eat 4 junk meals/week if you eat 6x/day. This actually helps fat loss. Eat out so you can’t overdo it.
- Track Progress for Motivation. Pictures, body fat, measurements and strength gains. Aim for 2-3% fat loss/month (use a fat caliper).
Example: Fat Loss Diets. To lose fat: proteins, veggies, fruits and healthy fats with each meal. Carbs post workout only. Example fat loss diet:
Breakfast: eggs with tomato & bell peppers, orange, green tea
Snack: cottage cheese with apple
Lunch: chicken, bok choy, tomato, chicory, olive oil
Snack: mixed nuts
Post workout: ground round, brown rice, mixed veggies, banana
Dinner: chicken, spinach, baby carrots, pear
Pre-bed snack: cottage cheese, berries, ground flax seeds, fish oil
Don’t waste your time counting calories: you won’t get fat eating unprocessed foods. Just eat your stomach full and prepare your own food so you have total control over the ingredients. Aim for 2-3% fat loss per month.
Source : http://www.stronglifts.com
You know lack of sleep can make you grumpy and foggy. You may not know what it can do to your sex life,
memory, health, looks, and even ability to lose weight. Here are 10 surprising — and serious — effects of sleep loss.
Sleep deprivation was a factor in some of the biggest disasters in recent history: the 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the massive Exxon Valdez oil spill, the 1986 nuclear meltdown at Chernobyl, and others.
But sleep loss is also a big public safety hazard every day on the road. Drowsiness can slow reaction time as much as driving drunk. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that fatigue is a cause in 100,000 auto crashes and 1,550 crash-related deaths a year in the U.S. The problem is greatest among people under 25 years old.
Studies show that sleep loss and poor-quality sleep also lead to accidents and injuries on the job. In one study, workers who complained about excessive daytime sleepiness had significantly more work accidents, particularly repeated work accidents. They also had more sick days per accident.
2. Sleep Loss Dumbs You Down
Sleep plays a critical role in thinking and learning. Lack of sleep hurts these cognitive processes in many ways. First, it impairs attention, alertness, concentration, reasoning, and problem solving. This makes it more difficult to learn efficiently.
Second, during the night, various sleep cycles play a role in “consolidating” memories in the mind. If you don’t get enough sleep, you won’t be able to remember what you learned and experienced during the day.
3. Sleep Deprivation Can Lead to Serious Health Problems
• Heart disease
• Heart attack
• Heart failure
• Irregular heartbeat
• High blood pressure
According to some estimates, 90% of people with insomnia — a sleep disorder characterized by trouble falling and staying asleep — also have another health condition.
4. Lack of Sleep Kills Sex Drive
Sleep specialists say that sleep-deprived men and women report lower libidos and less interest in sex. Depleted energy, sleepiness, and increased tension may be largely to blame.
For men with sleep apnea, a respiratory problem that interrupts sleep, there may be another factor in the sexual slump. A study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism in 2002 suggests that many men with sleep apnea also have low testosterone levels. In the study, nearly half of the men who suffered from severe sleep apnea also secreted abnormally low levels of testosterone during the night.
5. Sleepiness Is Depressing
Over time, lack of sleep and sleep disorders can contribute to the symptoms of depression. In a 2005 Sleep in America poll, people who were diagnosed with depression or anxiety were more likely to sleep less than six hours at night.
The most common sleep disorder, insomnia, has the strongest link to depression. In a 2007 study of 10,000 people, those with insomnia were five times as likely to develop depression as those without. In fact, insomnia is often one of the first symptoms of depression.
Insomnia and depression feed on each other. Sleep loss often aggravates the symptoms of depression, and depression can make it more difficult to fall asleep. On the positive side, treating sleep problems can help depression and its symptoms, and vice versa.
6. Lack of Sleep Ages Your Skin
Most people have experienced sallow skin and puffy eyes after a few nights of missed sleep. But it turns out that chronic sleep loss can lead to lackluster skin, fine lines, and dark circles under the eyes.
When you don’t get enough sleep, your body releases more of the stress hormone cortisol. In excess amounts, cortisol can break down skin collagen, the protein that keeps skin smooth and elastic.
Sleep loss also causes the body to release too little human growth hormone. When we’re young, human growth hormone promotes growth. As we age, it helps increase muscle mass, thicken skin, and strengthen bones.
“It’s during deep sleep — what we call slow-wave sleep — that growth hormone is released,” says sleep expert Phil Gehrman, PhD. “It seems to be part of normal tissue repair — patching the wear and tear of the day.”
7. Sleepiness Makes You Forgetful
Trying to keep your memory sharp? Try getting plenty of sleep.
In 2009, American and French researchers determined that brain events called “sharp wave ripples” are responsible for consolidating memory. The ripples also transfer learned information from the hippocampus to the neocortex of the brain, where long-term memories are stored. Sharp wave ripples occur mostly during the deepest levels of sleep.
When it comes to body weight, it may be that if you snooze, you lose. Lack of sleep seems to be related to an increase in hunger and appetite, and possibly to obesity. According to a 2004 study, people who sleep less than six hours a day were almost 30 percent more likely to become obese than those who slept seven to nine hours.
Recent research has focused on the link between sleep and the peptides that regulate appetite. “Ghrelin stimulates hunger and leptin signals satiety to the brain and suppresses appetite,” says Siebern. “Shortened sleep time is associated with decreases in leptin and elevations in ghrelin.”
Not only does sleep loss appear to stimulate appetite. It also stimulates cravings for high-fat, high-carbohydrate foods. Ongoing studies are considering whether adequate sleep should be a standard part of weight loss programs.
9. Lack of Sleep May Increase Risk of Death
In the “Whitehall II Study,” British researchers looked at how sleep patterns affected the mortality of more than 10,000 British civil servants over two decades. The results, published in 2007, showed that those who had cut their sleep from seven to five hours or fewer a night nearly doubled their risk of death from all causes. In particular, lack of sleep doubled the risk of death from cardiovascular disease.
10. Sleep Loss Impairs Judgment, Especially About Sleep
Lack of sleep can affect our interpretation of events. This hurts our ability to make sound judgments because we may not assess situations accurately and act on them wisely.
Sleep-deprived people seem to be especially prone to poor judgment when it comes to assessing what lack of sleep is doing to them. In our increasingly fast-paced world, functioning on less sleep has become a kind of badge of honor. But sleep specialists say if you think you’re doing fine on less sleep, you’re probably wrong. And if you work in a profession where it’s important to be able to judge your level of functioning, this can be a big problem.
“Studies show that over time, people who are getting six hours of sleep, instead of seven or eight, begin to feel that they’ve adapted to that sleep deprivation — they’ve gotten used to it,” Gehrman says. “But if you look at how they actually do on tests of mental alertness and performance, they continue to go downhill. So there’s a point in sleep deprivation when we lose touch with how impaired we are.”
Not all heart attacks begin with the sudden, crushing chest pain that often is shown on TV or in the movies.
In one study, for example, one-third of the patients who had heart attacks had no chest pain. These patients were more likely to be older, female, or diabetic.
2.People who have high blood sugar (diabetes) may have no symptoms or very mild ones.
3.The most common symptom, in both men and women, is chest pain or discomfort.
4.Women are somewhat more likely to have shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, usual tiredness (sometimes for days), and pain in the back, shoulders, and jaw.
Some people don’t have symptoms at all. Heart attacks that occur without any symptoms or with very mild symptoms are called silent heart attacks.
Upper body discomfort. You may feel pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, shoulders, neck, jaw, or upper part of the stomach (above the belly button).
Shortness of breath. This may be your only symptom, or it may occur before or along with chest pain or discomfort. It can occur when you are resting or doing a little bit of physical activity.
The symptoms of angina (an-JI-nuh or AN-juh-nuh) can be similar to the symptoms of a heart attack. Angina is chest pain that occurs in people who have coronary heart disease, usually when they’re active. Angina pain usually lasts for only a few minutes and goes away with rest.
1.Breaking out in a cold sweat
2.Feeling unusually tired for no reason, sometimes for days (especially if you are a woman)
3.Nausea (feeling sick to the stomach) and vomiting
4.Light-headedness or sudden dizziness
5.Any sudden, new symptoms or a change in the pattern of symptoms you already have (for example, if your symptoms become stronger or last longer than usual)
Not everyone having a heart attack has typical symptoms. If you’ve already had a heart attack, your symptoms may not be the same for another one. However, some people may have a pattern of symptoms that recur.
The more signs and symptoms you have, the more likely it is that you’re having a heart attack.
China education is the largest education system in the world. There were 9.12 million students taking the China’s National Higher Education Entrance Examination (Gao Kao) on June 2013. Investment in education accounts for about 4% of total GDP in China. In 1986, the Chinese government passed a compulsory education law, making nine years of education mandatory for all Chinese children. Today, the Ministry of Education estimates that 99.7 percent of the population area of the country has achieved universal nine-year basic education
China has a long history of providing education to international students studying in high schools and universities. International students have enrolled in over 660 higher education institutions throughout the country. Over the past few years, the number of international students who study abroad in China has significantly increased every year